The chain of restaurants, inspired by Argentinian cuisine and specialising in steak, has opened in Hart Street.
A launch event was held at the restaurant on Saturday before opening to the public on Monday.
Charley Springall, marketing manager for CAU, said: “We have had such a warm welcome to Henley and had a very successful soft launch on Saturday with fantastic support from locals.
“It was great to finally open the doors on Monday and we are looking forward to a busy December and beyond with plenty of events planned for 2015.”
A £1 million refurbishment of the premises was carried out in the months before it opened.
The restaurant now has 120 covers and features corrugated booth seating with images of bright blue sky and rich green grass to evoke the spirit of Argentina.
The menu includes Argentinian beef, twice-cooked pork belly and pepper crusted, seared tuna steak.
Cau also has own brand wines available, including three Malbecs and one Marsanne Riesling.
Operations director Graham Hall said: “Our speciality cuts are obviously something very special, quite unique for the high street, but it’s the attention to detail and the ethos of making everything fresh on site that really sets us apart from the rest.”
Cau replaced Spanish tapas restaurant La Bodega, which closed suddenly in August after more than 10 years in the town.
The chain applied to redesign the front adding large windows, a covered canopy, a fascia sign and a projecting sign, before making a U-turn on the decision.
The Henley restaurant is Cau’s eighth restaurant and its fifth premises to open this year, along with restaurants in Wimbledon, Bristol, Kingston and Tunbridge Wells.